Introduction to geophysical fluid dynamics: motivating questions. Earth's radiation balance.
Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to fluid dynamics. Mass and momentum balance. Rotating systems. The Colriolis force.
Momentum equations in a rotating system, Rossby number, scaling theory, geostrophic equations, thermal-wind balance.
Shallow water theory: shallow water equations and waves, f-plane, surface gravity waves, Tsunamis, Kelvin waves.
Week 5: Frictional boundary layers: The Ekman layer, Ekman spiral, Ekman pumping, costal upwealing.
Week 6: Vorticity balance equations, Rossby waves: shallow water Rossby waves, beta-plane, energy and energy flux from Rossby waves.
Wind driven ocean circulation: Observed ocean circulation, gyres, Sverdrup balance, western boundary layers / the Gulf Stream.
El Nino dynamics: The equatorial beta plane, equatorial trapped waves, ocean stratification.
Thermohaline circulation, temperature-salinity thermodynamics, multiple equilibria, hysteresis.
Atmospheric thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics, energy equations, atmospheric lapse rate, potential temperature, static stability.
Tropical circulation: Observed tropical circulation, angular momentum equation, the Hadley cell, Held-Hou theory.
Extratropical circulation: Observed extratropical circulation, stationary waves, subtropical jet, the eddy driven jet, Ferrel cell dynamics.
Quasi-geostrophy: QG equations, QG Rossby waves, the QG potential vorticity equation, Baroclinic instability: The Eady model
Atmospheric dynamics of other Solar System planets and moons, dynamics on exoplanets.