Neurons are uniquely large and polarized cells, with specialized functions in information transfer. These characteristics pose significant challenges for the basic mechanisms that sustain all cells, requiring sophisticated adaptation and specialization in neuronal cell biology. The course will explore these specializations and adaptations, with special focus on the following topics: 1) neuronal cytoskeleton and transport, 2) local protein synthesis, 3) compartmentalized proteolysis,4) RNA biology in neurons, 5) lipid and membrane dynamics, 6) energy and mitochondria, 7) calcium and ionic regulation, 8) and neuronal growth and maintenance. A number of guest lectures will highlight how failures in these mechanisms can lead to disease, covering examples from neurodevelopmental to neurodegenerative disorders. Finally a series of student seminars will address recent highlights from the literature, chosen in consultation with the course lecturers.